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Endocrine evaluation 

Endocrine evaluation
Endocrine evaluation

Hermann M. Behre

and Eberhard Nieschlag

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date: 28 June 2022

The main constituent of endocrine laboratory diagnosis of testicular dysfunction is the determination of the gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secreted from the pituitary gland, of testosterone secreted from the Leydig cells, and of inhibin-B secreted from the Sertoli cells. Where hypothalamic or pituitary disorders are suspected as causes of testicular dysfunction, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test can be performed for further differentiation. A human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation test is done for evaluation of the endocrine reserve capacity of the testis. Additional hormone measurements are performed for special diagnostic questions, e.g. of oestradiol in cases of gynaecomastia, or hCG and oestradiol upon suspicion of a testicular tumour. Various steroid hormones, including dihydrotestosterone, androgen receptors, or androgen metabolizing enzymes (e.g. 5α‎-reductase) in the target organs are analysed in patients with disturbances of sexual differentiation.

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