Show Summary Details
Page of

Clinical appearance and examination 

Clinical appearance and examination
Clinical appearance and examination

Eberhard Nieschlag

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 26 May 2022

While infertility as such is usually not accompanied by any characteristic clinical appearance of the patient, depending on the degree of testosterone deficiency, hypogonadism leads to distinct symptoms, which—if fully expressed—can be easily recognized. Testosterone is necessary throughout life and creates identifiable phenotypical expressions in the various phases of life.

The onset of lack of testosterone can be estimated from the clinical appearance of the patient. Concerning clinical symptomatology, some androgen-determined phenotypical features require continuous androgen action (for example, beard growth, haematopoiesis, and libido), while others, once induced by testosterone, may be maintained without the continuous support of testosterone (for example, size of larynx and penis). Intrauterine lack of testosterone at the time of sexual differentiation may lead to various disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD). Postnatally, the clinical appearance of hypogonadism depends on whether the lack of testosterone becomes manifest before or after puberty (Table While lack of testosterone before and during puberty may lead to the full picture of eunuchoidism, after regular completion of puberty its symptoms may remain relatively hidden.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.