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Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia 

Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia
Chapter:
Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia
Author(s):

Philip Savage

and Michael J. Seckl

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199235292.003.0918
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date: 20 June 2019

Arising from the cells of conception, gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) forms a spectrum of disorders from the premalignant complete and partial hydatidiform moles through to the malignant invasive mole, choriocarcinoma and very rare placental site trophoblastic tumours (PSTT). The latter three conditions are also collectively known as gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) and, although uncommon, are important to recognize as this enables life-saving therapy to be commenced. About 10% of molar pregnancies fail to die out after uterine evacuation and transform into malignant GTN that require additional chemotherapy (1). These cases are usually recognized early and therefore rarely prove difficult to treat, with cure rates approaching 100% reported in most modern series (2). However, GTN can also develop after any type of pregnancy including miscarriages, term deliveries, and medical abortions. Such patients are often not suspected of having GTN and may present late with widespread disease associated with a wide variety of medical, surgical, and gynaecological problems (3). The prompt diagnosis and early effective treatment of these women is aided by an awareness and understanding of these rare, but highly curable malignancies and good team-working between physicians, gynaecologists, pathologists, and oncologists

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