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Childhood endocrinology 

Childhood endocrinology
Childhood endocrinology

Guy Van Vliet

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date: 28 June 2022

Between embryonic life and the end of growth, the endocrine milieu undergoes profound changes that need to be known to understand the common paediatric endocrine disorders, to interpret results of hormone assays in newborns, infants, children, and adolescents properly, and to take advantage of some periods of life that are ‘windows of opportunity’ for some diagnoses. In this section, we will review these changes from the perspective of a practising paediatric endocrinologist. The main focus is on the ‘classical’ endocrine axes—growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)/somatostatin–growth hormone–insulin-like growth factor, gonadotropin-releasing hormone–luteinizing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)–gonadal hormones, TRH–TSH–thyroid hormones, corticotropin-releasing factor–-adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)–adrenal steroids. Glucose and mineral metabolism will also be briefly discussed, as will childhood obesity. The increasing role of DNA-based diagnosis in paediatric endocrinology will also be highlighted.

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