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Imaging neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract 

Imaging neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract
Imaging neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract

James E. Jackson

and Mary E. Roddie

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date: 20 May 2022

Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) tumours are best divided into two distinct groups when discussing their radiological imaging. First are the functioning insulinomas and gastrinomas, which are often small at presentation; imaging of these lesions is usually aimed at localization of the primary tumour (and exclusion of metastatic disease) with a view to surgical excision. Second are the nonfunctioning neoplasms and the functioning tumours—carcinoids being the most common—which secrete a variety of other hormones including glucagon, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, 5-hydroxytryptamine, somatostatin, serotonin, and pancreatic polypeptide. These are often large at presentation and are, therefore, obvious on cross-sectional imaging studies or have already metastasized; the role of the radiologist in this group is usually that of documenting the extent of disease to guide operative or nonoperative therapy. These two groups will be discussed separately.

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