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Thyroid disorders and bone disease 

Thyroid disorders and bone disease
Thyroid disorders and bone disease

Moira S. Cheung

, Apostolos I. Gogakos

, J.H. Duncan Bassett

, and Graham R. Williams

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date: 19 May 2022

Osteoporosis is defined as a bone mineral density (BMD) of 2.5 or more standard deviations below that of a young adult (T score ≤ −2.5). It is characterized by reduced bone mass, low BMD, deterioration of bone microarchitecture, and an increased susceptibility to fragility fracture. The prevalence of postmenopausal osteoporosis increases with age from 6% at 50 years of age to over 50% at age 80 and the lifetime incidence of fracture for a 50 year old in the UK is 40% for women and 13% for men. Osteoporosis is a worldwide public health burden that costs an estimated £1.7 billion in the UK, $15 billion in the USA, and £32 billion in Europe per annum (see Chapter 4.7).

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