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Ronen Levi

and Justin Silver

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date: 27 January 2022

Ionized calcium is essential for several physiological functions, including neuromuscular activation, endocrine and exocrine secretions, integrity of cellular bilayers, plasma coagulation, immune functions and bone metabolism. Extracellular fluid (ECF) calcium is uniquely controlled by its own calcium-sensing receptor, regulating the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH), synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and the renal reabsorption of filtered calcium (see Chapter 4.1). With the advent of the autoanalyser and routine determination of serum calcium levels, recognition of hypercalcaemia has become common. However, the clinical spectrum of hypercalcaemia varies from a laboratory-detected, asymptomatic mineral disorder to a life-threatening state.

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