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Causes and laboratory investigations of thyrotoxicosis 

Causes and laboratory investigations of thyrotoxicosis
Causes and laboratory investigations of thyrotoxicosis

Francesco Latrofa

, Paolo Vitti

, and Aldo Pinchera

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date: 20 May 2022

The term thyrotoxicosis identifies the clinical syndrome caused by elevated circulating thyroid hormones of all sources, while the term hyperthyroidism includes only the disorders due to an increased secretion of hormones by the thyroid gland. Hyperthyroidism is the most frequent cause of thyrotoxicosis. Destructive processes involving the thyroid gland that induce unregulated discharge of preformed thyroid hormones (destructive thyrotoxicosis) and circulating thyroid hormone of extrathyroidal origin (exogenous or extrathyroidal thyrotoxicosis) are less common causes of thyrotoxicosis. Although careful history taking and physical examination often allows a diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis to be made, laboratory confirmation by measurement of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormone is always needed. Once thyrotoxicosis is confirmed, laboratory testing and thyroid imaging are required to identify the cause of thyrotoxicosis.

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