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Beth Kaplan

, Elizabeth N. Pearce

, and Alan P. Farwell

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date: 19 May 2022

Thyroiditis comprises a diverse group of disorders that are among the most common endocrine abnormalities encountered in clinical practice. These disorders range from the extremely common chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (Hashimoto’s thyroiditis) to the extremely rare invasive fibrous thyroiditis (Riedel’s thyroiditis) (Box Clinical presentations are also diverse, ranging from an incidental finding of a goitre to potentially life-threatening illness, from hypothyroidism to thyrotoxicosis. The term ‘thyroiditis’ implies that the disorders described in this section are inflammatory processes involving the thyroid gland. However, some of the lesions are not inflammatory, but are included in the thyroiditis category largely for convenience. A rational approach to such patients, including history, physical examination, laboratory evaluation, radionuclide or ultrasonographic imaging, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy, will allow the appropriate diagnosis to be made in the vast majority of cases.

This chapter will review the following forms of thyroiditis: Hashimoto’s, subacute, infectious, and Riedel’s. Other forms of thyroiditis are discussed within other chapters, as follows: postpartum thyroiditis (Chapter 3.4.6), radiation thyroiditis (Chapter 3.2.5), drug-induced thyroiditis (Chapter 3.1.4), thyroiditis associated with neoplasms (Chapter 3.5.5), and focal thyroiditis associated with nontoxic nodular goitre (Chapter 3.5.1).

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