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Iodine deficiency disorders 

Iodine deficiency disorders
Iodine deficiency disorders

Michael B. Zimmermann

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date: 18 May 2022

Iodine (atomic weight 126.9 g/mol) is an essential component of the hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Thyroid hormones, and therefore iodine, are essential for mammalian life (1). The native iodine content of most foods and beverages is low, and the most commonly consumed foods provide 3–80 μ‎g/serving (1). The major dietary sources of iodine in the United States of America and Europe are bread and milk (2). Boiling, baking, and canning of foods containing iodized salt cause only small losses (≤10%) of iodine content. The iodine content in foods is also influenced by iodine-containing compounds used in irrigation, fertilizers, livestock feed, dairy industry disinfectants, and bakery dough conditioners. The recommendations for iodine intake by age and population group (3) are shown in Table

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