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Endocrine abnormalities in HIV infection 

Endocrine abnormalities in HIV infection
Chapter:
Endocrine abnormalities in HIV infection
Author(s):

Takara L. Stanley

and Steven K. Grinspoon

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199235292.003.0186
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date: 10 August 2020

Approximately 33 million people worldwide are living with HIV infection, and more than 2 million individuals are newly infected each year (1). Sub-Saharan Africa bears the majority of the disease burden, with 67% of all HIV cases and 75% of all HIV/AIDS related deaths occurring in this region (2). Although access to antiretroviral therapy has improved significantly over the past decade, antiretrovirals are available to only about 30% of those who need them (2). Availability of antiretroviral therapy greatly impacts the endocrine manifestations of HIV infection: individuals treated with antiretrovirals may develop peripheral fat loss, abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia, whereas untreated individuals may develop undernutrition, wasting, and end-organ effects of opportunistic infections such as primary adrenal insufficiency secondary to adrenal destruction (Box 10.2.4.1). In all individuals with HIV infection, regardless of treatment, gonadal function, thyroid function, and bone mineral density may also be decreased, and salt and water balance may be affected (Box 10.2.4.2). The purpose of this chapter is to review the endocrine manifestations of HIV infection, including pathogenesis and treatment.

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