Show Summary Details
Page of

Endocrine abnormalities in HIV infection 

Endocrine abnormalities in HIV infection
Endocrine abnormalities in HIV infection

Takara L. Stanley

and Steven K. Grinspoon

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 20 May 2022

Approximately 33 million people worldwide are living with HIV infection, and more than 2 million individuals are newly infected each year (1). Sub-Saharan Africa bears the majority of the disease burden, with 67% of all HIV cases and 75% of all HIV/AIDS related deaths occurring in this region (2). Although access to antiretroviral therapy has improved significantly over the past decade, antiretrovirals are available to only about 30% of those who need them (2). Availability of antiretroviral therapy greatly impacts the endocrine manifestations of HIV infection: individuals treated with antiretrovirals may develop peripheral fat loss, abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia, whereas untreated individuals may develop undernutrition, wasting, and end-organ effects of opportunistic infections such as primary adrenal insufficiency secondary to adrenal destruction (Box In all individuals with HIV infection, regardless of treatment, gonadal function, thyroid function, and bone mineral density may also be decreased, and salt and water balance may be affected (Box The purpose of this chapter is to review the endocrine manifestations of HIV infection, including pathogenesis and treatment.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.