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Carl Waldmann

, Neil Soni

, and Andrew Rhodes

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date: 09 May 2021

Crystalloids 142

Colloids 144

Sodium bicarbonate 146

Blood 150

A substance with properties of a crystal; aqueous fluids containing dissolved sugars or salts (Table 9.1.1).

Isotonic crystalloids

‘Normal saline’

Hartmann's (Ringer's lactate)

Hypotonic crystalloids

‘Half-normal saline’...

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