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Carl Waldmann

, Neil Soni

, and Andrew Rhodes

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date: 09 May 2021

Shock: definition and diagnosis 446

Hypovolaemic shock 450

Cardiogenic shock 452

Anaphylactic shock 456

Septic shock: pathogenesis 458

Shock, or acute circulatory failure, defines a state in which the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the tissue is insufficient to meet basal metabolic needs, leading to tissue hypoxia, and, if persistent, to MOF and death. Shock results from tissue hypoperfusion and microcirculatory dysfunction, and should thus not be restricted to hypotension. Although frequent, hypotension is not mandatory for the diagnosis of shock. In the absence of hypotension, increased lactate levels may indicate tissue hypoper-fusion and can be used to diagnose shock (at least at its initiation)....

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