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Neurological disorders 

Neurological disorders
Chapter:
Neurological disorders
Author(s):

Carl Waldmann

, Neil Soni

, and Andrew Rhodes

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199229581.003.0022
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date: 05 May 2021

Agitation and confusion 360

Status epilepticus 362

Meningitis 364

Intracerebral haemorrhage 366

Subarachnoid haemorrhage 368

Ischaemic stroke 370

Guillain–Barre syndrome 372

Myasthenia gravis 374

ICU neuromuscular disorders 376

Tetanus 378

Botulism 380

Neurorehabilitation 382

Hyperthermias 384

Agitation and confusion are common features in critical illness. Agitation is a symptom or sign of numerous acute and chronic disease states that include pain, anxiety and delirium. Agitation is present in around half of ICU patients, with 15% experiencing severe agitation. Confusion may also be chronic or acute and arise from an overlapping set of pathological processes that includes hypoxia, hypotension, hypoglycaemia and dementia. It is possible to be agitated and not confused, and vice versa. Recognition and treatment of the underlying condition is of utmost importance, rather than treating the symptoms alone....

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