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Fluid and electrolyte disorders 

Fluid and electrolyte disorders
Fluid and electrolyte disorders

Jonathan Barratt

, Kevin Harris

, and Peter Topham

Page of

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date: 06 March 2021

Hypo-/hypernatremia: disorders of water balance42





Clinical acid–base disorders64

Sodium (Na+) is the major cation in the extracellular fluid (ECF). It is also the major determinant of serum osmolality.

The serum sodium concentration ([Na...

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