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Marie Fallon

and Sandra McConnell

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date: 16 September 2021

Morphine is considered the first line strong opioid for cancer pain and can be administered via different routes. Patients, carers and health care professionals’ concerns regarding morphine must be addressed to allow successful pain management. Morphine is metabolized in the liver and is therefore susceptible to interactions with other drugs. Morphine metabolites are excreted by the kidney and may accumulate in renal impairment. Adverse effects of morphine may be managed by dose reduction, change in route of administration, opioid switching and/or symptomatic measures.

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