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Other routes of opioid administration 

Other routes of opioid administration
Other routes of opioid administration

Giovambattista Zeppetella

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date: 05 August 2021

The oral route is the commonest route of opioid administration. In some instances, clinical circumstances make a switch to an alternative route of administration desirable. Common alternative routes include oral transmucosal, rectal, inhaled and topical administration. The evidence base for alternatives to the oral route is often from case reports; the strongest evidence is for oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate in the management of breakthrough pain. There are few non-oral licensed preparations available and most use is off-label.

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