Show Summary Details
Page of

Other routes of opioid administration 

Other routes of opioid administration
Chapter:
Other routes of opioid administration
Author(s):

Giovambattista Zeppetella

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199218806.003.0014
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE (www.oxfordmedicine.com). © Oxford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 01 June 2020

The oral route is the commonest route of opioid administration. In some instances, clinical circumstances make a switch to an alternative route of administration desirable. Common alternative routes include oral transmucosal, rectal, inhaled and topical administration. The evidence base for alternatives to the oral route is often from case reports; the strongest evidence is for oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate in the management of breakthrough pain. There are few non-oral licensed preparations available and most use is off-label.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.