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Sexually transmitted infections 

Sexually transmitted infections
Sexually transmitted infections

Mary L. Kamb

and John M. Douglas

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date: 28 June 2022

Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are among the world’s most common diseases. More than 20 organisms and at least as many syndromes are recognized as being transmissible through vaginal, anal, or oral sex, including human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV), discussed separately in Chapter 9.13 (Table 9.13.1). Globally, annual incidence of bacterial STI is exceeded only by diarrhoeal diseases, malaria, and lower respiratory infections (World Health Organization 2007). In the United States, two bacterial STI, chlamydia and gonorrhoea, are the first and second most commonly reported of all notifiable diseases (CDC 2006). Even so, the burden of bacterial STI is small when compared to that of viral STI such as human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), the former leading to persistent long-term infection in many and the latter resulting in lifelong infection in all those infected.

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