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Case–control studies* 

Case–control studies*
Case–control studies*

Noel S. Weiss

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date: 29 June 2022

Case–control studies compare ill or injured individuals (cases) with those at risk of the illness or injury (controls) with regard to prior exposures or characteristics, and so appear to proceed backwards, from consequence to potential cause. However, if a case–control study is able to enrol cases and controls from the same underlying population at risk of the outcome, and can measure exposure status of these persons in a valid manner, the results obtained will closely resemble those of a properly performed cohort study.

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