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Off-pump surgery 

Off-pump surgery
Off-pump surgery

E Ashley

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date: 07 August 2020

Background 348

Managing the procedure 350

Outcome 354

Further reading 356

Coronary artery bypass surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass was first performed in St Petersburg in 1964, but was abandoned with the rapid development of cardiopulmonary bypass. In the 1980s the technique was revived in South America, Turkey, and India, the renewed impetus being largely due to economic considerations....

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