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Central nervous system 

Central nervous system
Chapter:
Central nervous system
Author(s):

J Arrowsmith

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199209101.003.05
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date: 07 August 2020

Introduction 74

General considerations 76

Incidence and etiology 78

Prevention 82

Management of established neurological complications 86

Further reading 89

Injury to the brain and spinal cord after cardiac surgery represents a significant cause of morbidity and disability. Neurological complications increase the length of ICU and hospital stay, and reduce the likelihood of return to independent living. Minor neurological complications are very common and often go undiagnosed. It is now recognized that transient and early postoperative problems such as confusion, agitation, and delirium – previously considered self-limiting nuisances – are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, a decline in cognitive function in the early postoperative period is predictive of late (five-year) cognitive decline....

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