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Investigation of liver and pancreatobiliary disease 

Investigation of liver and pancreatobiliary disease
Investigation of liver and pancreatobiliary disease

Robert P. Sutcliffe

, Charalambos Gustav Antoniades

, Rahul Deshpande

, Olga N. Tucker

, and Nigel Heaton

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date: 14 June 2021

General approach 18

Baseline tests 20

Transabdominal ultrasound 22

Intraoperative ultrasound 26

Cross-sectional imaging 30

Hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid scan 32

Positron emission tomography scan 34

Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy 35

Endoscopic ultrasound 35

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography 36

Percutaneous liver biopsy 38

Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography 40


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