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Eye movements and balance 

Eye movements and balance
Eye movements and balance

Michael Strupp

and Thomas Brandt



Clinical method—expanded discussion of history-taking and clinical examination.

Treatment—pharmacological therapies for vertigo.

Specific conditions—updated notes on benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo, Menière’s disease, bilateral vestibular failure, and vestibular migraine.

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date: 28 September 2021

The major function of eye movements is to keep the image of the visual surroundings stable on the retina, even during eye movements or head and body movements. This is achieved by (1) conjugate eye movements (both eyeballs move in parallel)—gaze-holding, smooth pursuit, saccades, vestibulo-ocular nystagmus (VOR), and optokinetic nystagmus; and (2) disconjugate eye movements—convergence and divergence....

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