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Visual pathways 

Visual pathways
Visual pathways

Christopher Kennard

and Sara Ajina



Minor updates to sections on optic nerve hypoplasia, nonarteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy, arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy, and optic neuritis

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date: 20 May 2022

Visual disturbances may be caused by diseases of the optic disc, optic nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, lateral geniculate nucleus, optic radiations, and occipital lobe of the brain, as well as other brain areas involved in complex visual processing.

Diagnosis of disturbances of the visual pathways requires both knowledge of their anatomy and physiology, and the ability to carry out a thorough neuro-ophthalmological examination which should enable (1) documentation of the character and extent of the visual disturbance, and (2) topographic localization of the lesion, so that the relevant investigative techniques, such as radiological imaging, can be appropriately requested....

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