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Malignant diseases of the urinary tract 

Malignant diseases of the urinary tract
Malignant diseases of the urinary tract

Lih-Ming Wong

and David Neal


February 27, 2014: This chapter has been re-evaluated and remains up-to-date. No changes have been necessary.


Transitional cell bladder cancer—revised (2009) TNM classification.

Renal cell carcinoma—detailed description of 2009 TNM classification. Discussion of conservative management of small tumours in patients with limited long-term survival.

Prostate cancer—revised (2009) TNM classification

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date: 20 September 2021

Urological cancers are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Their treatment frequently involves a combination of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, with patients needing both local therapy to treat the primary tumour and systemic therapy to decrease the risk of metastatic relapse.

Bladder cancer usually arises from the transitional epithelium and typically presents with haematuria, lower urinary tract symptoms, pelvic pain, or (metastatic disease) systemic symptoms. Most cases are sporadic and related to cigarette smoking. They are graded histologically as: 1 (low risk of future progression), 2, or 3 (high risk of progression/metastases), and staged according to the tumour–nodes–metastases (TNM) classification, with the most important issues being whether the tumour is muscle invasive (T2 or above) or localized to urothelium only (Ta), and whether there is metastatic disease....

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