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Chronic kidney disease 

Chronic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease

Eberhard Ritz

, and Tilman B. Drüeke


Update: Enhanced discussion of (1) increased mortality associated with very modest increase in proteinuria; (2) effect of blood pressure control on progression—new trial in African American patients with hypertensive kidney disease; (3) use of newer phosphate binders and the calcimimetic, cinacalcet; (4) timing of initiation of dialysis.

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date: 27 October 2021

Definition—chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as kidney damage lasting for more than 3 months characterized by structural or functional abnormalities of the kidney, with or without decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR).

Staging—CKD has been subdivided into five stages depending on the estimated GFR (eGFR), as described in ...

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