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Clinical presentation of renal disease 

Clinical presentation of renal disease
Clinical presentation of renal disease

Richard E Fielding

and Ken Farrington



Microscopic (non-visible) haematuria—updated recommendations regarding indications for referral to urological or nephrological services, and for long term monitoring if criteria for specialist referral are not met, or for patients who have had negative urological or nephrological investigations.

Revised guidelines for creatinine measurement following NICE guidance 2008.

Referral guidelines for microscopic haematuria updated following RA-BAUS Consensus Statement on Assessment of Haematuria.

Prevalence data for acute kidney injury updated.

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date: 19 September 2021

Renal disease may present in many ways, including: (1) the screening of asymptomatic individuals; (2) with symptoms and signs resulting from renal dysfunction; and (3) with symptoms and signs of an underlying disease, often systemic, which has resulted in renal dysfunction.

History and clinical signs—in many cases these are nonspecific or not apparent, and detection of renal disease relies on a combination of clinical suspicion and simple investigations, including urinalysis (by dipstick for proteinuria and haematuria, with quantification of proteinuria most conveniently performed by estimation of the albumin:creatinine ratio, ACR, or protein:creatinine ratio, PCR) and estimation of renal function (by measurement of serum creatinine, expressed as estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR)....

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