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Back pain and regional disorders 

Back pain and regional disorders
Back pain and regional disorders

Simon Carette

and Carlo Ammendolia


November 28, 2012: This chapter has been re-evaluated and remains up-to-date. No changes have been necessary.


Diagnostic criteria for neurogenic claudication—enhanced based on recent evidence reviews.

Intervention recommendations for nonspecific low back pain—based on review of national guidelines for management of low back pain published in 2010.

Prevalence, risk factors, classification, and intervention recommendations for neck pain—based on findings from the Bone and Joint Decade 2000–2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders, published in 2008.

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date: 27 September 2021

Over 70% of people in industrialized countries suffer from low back pain at some time, and it is one of the leading reasons for visits to physicians. Risk factors include heavy physical work, smoking, stress, depression, and job dissatisfaction. In more than 90% of cases the exact anatomical source of back pain cannot be determined, and the preferred diagnostic label is ‘nonspecific low back pain’....

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