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Allergic rhinitis 

Allergic rhinitis
Allergic rhinitis

Stephen R. Durham

and Hesham Saleh

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date: 19 September 2021

Allergic rhinitis affects more than 20% of the population of Westernized countries and has a significant impact on quality of life and school/work performance.

Aetiology and clinical features—important environmental factors include tree and grass pollens (seasonal allergic rhinitis); house dust mite and domestic pets, most often cats (perennial allergic rhinitis); and a variety of occupational exposures (occupational rhinitis). Many genetic loci confer susceptibility. Immediate symptoms (itching, sneezing, and watery nasal discharge) occur as a consequence of allergen cross-linking adjacent IgE molecules on the surface of mast cells in the nasal mucosa, resulting in the release of histamine and tryptase, and the generation of bradykinin....

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