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Gastrointestinal bleeding 

Gastrointestinal bleeding
Gastrointestinal bleeding

T.A. Rockall

and H.M.P. Dowson

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date: 19 September 2021

Gastrointestinal bleeding is a common emergency, with an incidence in the United Kingdom of about 1 per 1000 adults/year. It is subdivided into upper and lower, and acute or chronic, with acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage further subdivided into variceal and nonvariceal bleeding. Risk stratification in acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage can be performed using simple clinical and endoscopic criteria that can be used to estimate the risk of mortality, which overall is about 10% for both upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeds....

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