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The pineal gland and melatonin 

The pineal gland and melatonin
The pineal gland and melatonin

J. Arendt

and T.M. Cox



Expanded discussion of melatonin biosynthesis, receptors, role in photoperiodism, clinical use; also of the possible implication of melatonin in the reported cancer risk of shift workers and with regard to commercial preparations of melatonin and its analogues.

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date: 19 September 2021

The pineal gland transduces light–dark cycles into body rhythms by secretion of melatonin, an endogenous indoleamine derived from tryptophan, the concentrations of which in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid are up to 100 times higher at night than in the daytime. This exerts its effects through transmembrane, G-protein coupled receptors (MT1 and MT2) and nuclear receptors in the pituitary gland and hypothalamus....

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