- 1 On being a patient
- 2 Modern medicine: foundations, achievements, and limitations
- 3 Global patterns of disease and medical practice
- 4 Cell biology
- 5 Immunological mechanisms
- 6 Principles of clinical oncology
- 7 Infection
- 8 Sexually transmitted diseases and sexual health
- 9 Chemical and physical injuries and environmental factors and disease
- 10 Clinical pharmacology
- 11 Nutrition
- 12 Metabolic disorders
- 13 Endocrine disorders
- 13.1 Principles of hormone action
- 13.2 Disorders of the anterior pituitary gland
- 13.3 Disorders of the posterior pituitary gland
- 13.4 The thyroid gland and disorders of thyroid function
- 13.5 Thyroid cancer
- 13.6 Parathyroid disorders and diseases altering calcium metabolism
- 13.7 Adrenal disorders
- 13.8 The reproductive system
- 13.9 Disorders of growth and development
- 13.10 Pancreatic endocrine disorders and multiple endocrine neoplasia
- 13.11 Disorders of glucose homeostasis
- 13.11.1 Diabetes
- 13.11.2 Hypoglycaemia
- 13.12 Hormonal manifestations of nonendocrine disease
- 13.13 The pineal gland and melatonin
- 14 Medical disorders in pregnancy
- 15 Gastroenterological disorders
- 16 Cardiovascular disorders
- 17 Critical care medicine
- 18 Respiratory disorders
- 19 Rheumatological disorders
- 20 Disorders of the skeleton
- 21 Disorders of the kidney and urinary tract
- 22 Disorders of the blood
- 23 Disorders of the skin
- 24 Neurological disorders
- 25 The eye
- 26 Psychiatry and drug related problems
- 27 Forensic medicine
- 28 Sports medicine
- 29 Geratology
- 30 Pain
- 31 Palliative medicine
- 32 Biochemistry in medicine
- 33 Acute medicine
and Gareth Williams
Diagnosis—use of HbA1c for screening and diagnosis. Estimation of urinary C-peptide: creatinine ratio to distinguish MODY from type 1 diabetes.
Types of diabetes—description of ‘ketone-prone’ diabetes
Management—comment on withdrawal of some thiazolidinediones (troglitazone, rosiglitazone) for safety reasons. Discussion of use of saxagliptin in patients with severe chronic renal failure. Increased emphasis on intensive dietary support in type 2 diabetes and updated discussion of approach to medication.
Monitoring—discussion of change from reporting HbA1c as a percentage to in mmol HbA1c per mol of haemoglobin (mmol/mol).
Surgery in patients with diabetes—recommendations amended in line with new UK guidelines.
Diabetic ketoacidosis—emphasis on value of bedside finger-prick testing for blood ketones in diagnosis and management; modified treatment algorithm to advise fixed rate insulin infusion with addition of 10% dextrose infusion when blood glucose falls to less than 14 mmol/litre.
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