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Breast cancer 

Breast cancer
Breast cancer

M. Cariati

, L. Holmberg

, J. Mansi

, P. Parker

, G. Pichert

, S. Pinder

, E. Sawyer

, R. Wilson

, and A. Purushotham


May 30, 2013: This chapter has been re-evaluated and remains up-to-date. No changes have been necessary.


Screening—use of MRI in young women at very high risk.

Surgery—discussion of indications for complete axillary lymph node dissection following recent trial.

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date: 08 December 2021

Epidemiology and aetiology—over 1 million women worldwide are diagnosed with breast cancer each year, with about 400 000 dying of the disease. Familial breast cancer, most commonly related to the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, accounts for only 5% of all cases. Many of the known risk factors are not modifiable because they are inherent or would require unrealistic lifestyle changes, but moderating alcohol consumption, avoiding obesity, and increasing physical activity are all possibly useful interventions....

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