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Disturbances of acid–base homeostasis 

Disturbances of acid–base homeostasis
Disturbances of acid–base homeostasis

R. D. Cohen

and H. F. Woods


November 28, 2013: This chapter has been re-evaluated and remains up-to-date. No changes have been necessary.


New or enhanced discussion of lactic acidosis due to cyanide poisoning, pyroglutamic acidaemia, acidosis in the Wolcott–Rallison syndrome, and lactic acidosis in malignancy.

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date: 25 October 2021

Despite a daily load of protons, derived mainly from metabolism, the hydrogen ion concentration of arterial blood in health is tightly maintained within a slightly alkaline range (pH 7.36–7.42); concentrations of intracellular hydrogen ions are also controlled. Failure adequately to excrete or neutralize protons causes acidic conditions to prevail (decreased pH): undue intake of base, uncompensated loss of protons—or the substrates from which they are derived—induces an alkaline milieu (raised pH)....

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