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D.W. Dunne

and B.J. Vennervald


February 27, 2014: This chapter has been re-evaluated and remains up-to-date. No changes have been necessary.


Female genital schistosomiasis—association with HIV.

Schistosoma haematobium—now classified as definitely carcinogenic in humans.

Pulmonary manifestations—schistosomiasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale.

Diagnosis—multiplex real-time PCR for detection of schistosome DNA in stool samples proved useful in epidemiological studies.

Treatment—artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in S. mansoni and S. haematobium in Africa proved inferior to single-dose praziquantel.

Treatment of nervous system manifestations—combination of praziquantel and corticosteroids appears effective.

Vaccine—Bilhvax, currently in a phase III clinical trial in Senegal.

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date: 19 September 2021

Schistosomiasis is caused by trematode worms Schistosoma spp., whose life cycle requires a definitive vertebrate host and an intermediate freshwater snail host. Transmission to humans occurs through exposure to fresh water containing infectious larvae, which can penetrate intact skin before developing into blood-dwelling adult worms. The disease is patchily distributed in parts of South America, Africa, the Middle East, China, and South East Asia, with about 200 million people infected and 20 million suffering severe consequences of infection....

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