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A.D.M. Bryceson

and Diana N.J. Lockwood


July 30, 2015: This chapter has been re-evaluated and remains up-to-date. No changes have been necessary.


Epidemiology and treatment—publication of WHO Expert Committee Report 2010.

Treatment—short course multidrug regimen trials in Indian subcontinent.

Diagnosis—increasing use of PCR-based methods.

Imported visceral leishmaniasis in immunosuppressed patients—problems with clinical recognition and laboratory diagnosis.

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date: 21 October 2021

Leishmaniasis is caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, which are transmitted to humans from human or animal reservoirs by the bites of phlebotomine sandflies. In places the disease is common and important, with perhaps 500 000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis and 1.5–2 million cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis worldwide each year. As an imported disease, cutaneous leishmaniasis is common in travellers, military personnel, and immigrants coming from endemic areas, while the diagnosis of the less common visceral leishmaniasis is frequently overlooked....

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