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Lyme borreliosis 

Lyme borreliosis
Lyme borreliosis

Gary P. Wormser

, John Nowakowski

, and Robert B. Nadelman


July 30, 2015: This chapter has been re-evaluated and remains up-to-date. No changes have been necessary.


Further reading—updated.

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date: 28 November 2021

Lyme borreliosis is a zoonotic bacterial infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, a spirochaetal agent transmitted by certain species of Ixodes ticks. Small rodents and birds serve as reservoirs. It is the most common vector-borne infection in the United States of America and an important infection in many countries throughout the temperate regions of Europe and northern Asia, where a wider variety of borrelia species account for differences in clinical manifestations in Eurasia compared with the United States....

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