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K.P. Schaal



Chapter reviewed, minor changes made, further reading added.

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date: 28 September 2021

Human actinomycoses are always synergistic polymicrobial infections in which fermentative actinomycetes—predominantly Actinomyces israelii, A. gerencseriae, or Propionibacterium propionicum—are the principal pathogens, usually needing the assistance of so-called concomitant microbes to produce disease. Nearly all of the members of the mixed actinomycotic microflora belong to the indigenous microbial community of human mucous membranes, hence actinomycoses present as sporadic endogenous infections which are not transmissible....

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