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Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers 

Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers
Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers

C.M. Parry

and Buddha Basnyat


May 30, 2013: This chapter has been re-evaluated and remains up-to-date. No changes have been necessary.


Changes in nomenclature.

Similiarity between clinical presentation of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi.

Update on diagnostic tests.

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date: 27 September 2021

Typhoid and paratyphoid fever (the enteric fevers) are caused by specific serovars of the Gram-negative bacillus, Salmonella enterica. Sources of typhoid transmission are excreting chronic or convalescent carriers and the acutely infected, with transmission occuring through contamination by carriers of food or water by effluents containing infected urine or faeces. There are an estimated 27 million cases of enteric fever in the world each year, almost all in the developing world, with about 200 000 deaths....

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