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HTLV-1, HTLV-2, and associated diseases 

HTLV-1, HTLV-2, and associated diseases
HTLV-1, HTLV-2, and associated diseases

Kristien Verdonck

and Eduardo Gotuzzo



More emphasis on infectious complications of HTLV-1; additional detail of occurrence and disease outcomes of HTLV-2.

Addition of recent information on HTLV-1 receptor, virological synapse, the regulatory protein HBZ, and FoxP3+CD4+ T cells.

Discussion on reliability of prevalence estimates.

Particle agglutination tests have gone out of use and are no longer mentioned.

The proposal of a fifth category of ATL has not been adopted widely and is no longer mentioned.

Addition of bronchiectasis to table.

Addition of potential treatment strategies proposed in the literature.

Enhanced discussion of infectious complications and non-HAM/TSP inflammatory conditions.

More detail on HTLV-2 disease outcomes.

Recent references have been added.

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date: 01 July 2022

Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1 and HTLV-2 belong to the genus Deltaretrovirus of the family Retroviridae. They only infect humans, produce a lifelong infection, and can be transmitted from mother to child, through sexual intercourse, and via cellular blood components. Both viruses are present in all continents. The highest HTLV-1 prevalence in the general population (10%) has been found in southern Japan. There are endemic foci of HTLV-2 among native Amerindians and Central African pygmy tribes. HTLV-2 is also frequent among injecting drug users. It is unclear why some infected people develop associated diseases while others remain asymptomatic....

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