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Papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses 

Papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses
Papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses

Raphael P. Viscidi

and Keerti V. Shah


May 30, 2013: This chapter has been re-evaluated and remains up-to-date. No changes have been necessary.


Viruses—four new human polyomaviruses were discovered using molecular techniques but no disease associations established.

Epidemiology—HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers expected to exceed the number of cervical cancers in the United States of America by 2020.

Merkel cell cancers—new epidemiological and molecular evidence for aetiological role of Merkel cell polyomavirus.

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date: 27 September 2021

Papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses are small, nonenveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses.

There are over 100 human papillomavirus (HPV) types that infect epithelia of skin and mucous membranes. They infect only humans, and cause conditions including the following:

Skin warts and verrucas—caused by types 1 and 2; infection initiated when, after e.g. minor skin abrasions, the basal cells of the epithelium come in contact with infectious virus....

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