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J.W. LeDuc

and Summerpal S. Kahlon


August 28, 2014: This chapter has been re-evaluated and remains up-to-date. No changes have been necessary.


Phlebovirus—description of a novel phlebovirus; Heartland virus, and the illness it causes.

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date: 24 September 2021

Viruses of the family Bunyaviridae contain a 3-segmented, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome. They are divided into five genera, of which four are known to include human pathogens—Orthobunyavirus, Phlebovirus, Hantavirus, and Nairovirus. These viruses are found throughout the world and are transmitted between vertebrate hosts and to humans through the bite of infected arthropod vectors (mosquitoes, ticks, others), or from infectious excreta of rodents and other small mammals, and rarely person to person. Many are transmitted from infected arthropod vector females to the next generation by transovarial transmission, thereby surviving adverse environmental conditions and leading to marked seasonal distribution of disease. There are few vaccines available to protect against infection. Prevention is by avoidance of exposure to potentially infected arthropod and small-mammal vectors....

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