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P.A. Tookey

and J.M. Best


July 30, 2015: This chapter has been re-evaluated and remains up-to-date. No changes have been necessary.


Epidemiology and prevention in Africa and other developing regions.

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date: 19 September 2021

Rubella is caused by an enveloped RNA virus, for which humans are the only known host. Transmission is by airborne droplet spread, with infection seen predominantly in spring and early summer in temperate zones.

Postnatally acquired infection—presents after incubation of 14 to 21 days with rash (maculopapular, usually beginning on the face before spreading to the trunk and extremeties), lymphadenopathy (suboccipital and posterior cervical), and mild fever. Sore throat, coryza, cough, conjunctivitis, and arthralgia may be seen. The illness is usually mild. Management is symptomatic....

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