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E.E. Ooi

, L.R. Petersen

, and D.J. Gubler



Epidemiology and ecology—new information on hosts and vectors.

Diagnosis—use of PCR.

Mayaro virus—clinical features.


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date: 27 September 2021

There are 29 registered alphaviruses belonging to the family Togaviridae, 16 of which are known to cause human infection. They are RNA viruses with global geographical distribution and complex transmission cycles between wild or domestic animals or birds and one or more mosquito species; humans are infected by mosquito bites. They cause a spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from nonspecific febrile illness to acute encephalitis and death. Diagnosis of infection is made serologically by detection of IgM and IgG antibodies, virus isolation, and polymerase chain reaction, or by immunohistochemistry on tissue samples....

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