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Rhabdoviruses: rabies and rabies-related lyssaviruses 

Rhabdoviruses: rabies and rabies-related lyssaviruses
Rhabdoviruses: rabies and rabies-related lyssaviruses

M.J. Warrell

and David A. Warrell



Epidemiology—increasing concern about transmission by bats.

Treatment of rabies encephalitis—new recommendations.

Pre- and postexposure prophylaxis—revised vaccine regimens.

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date: 27 September 2021

The Rhabdoviridae are a large family of RNA viruses, two genera of which infect animals: the genus Lyssavirus contains rabies and rabies-related viruses that cause at least 55 000 deaths annually in Asia and Africa.

The risks and problems posed by rabies and other lyssaviruses vary across the world. Virus can penetrate broken skin and intact mucosae. Humans are usually infected when virus-laden saliva is inoculated through the skin by the bite of a rabid animal, usually a dog. Although the greatest threat to man is the persistent cycle of infection in stray dogs, several other terrestrial mammal species are reservoirs of infection. In the Americas, bat viruses are also classic genotype 1 rabies and insectivorous bats have become the principal vectors of infection to humans in the United States of America. Elsewhere in the world, there is increasing evidence of widespread rabies-related lyssavirus infection of bats. Unrecognized infection of organ donors has proved fatal to transplant recipients....

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