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D. Goldblatt

and M. Ramsay



T cell subsets and vaccine response—roles of T helper 2 cells, follicular helper T cells, and Th17 cells.

Discovery of vaccine antigens—‘reverse vaccinology’, starting with the pathogen genome.

HIV vaccines—disappointing results of phase III clinical trials apart from modest protection by RV144 vaccine in Thailand.

TB vaccines—several recombinant and other new vaccines under clinical trial.

Adjuvants—effectiveness with papilloma and H1N1 influenza vaccines, but does MF-59 trigger narcolepsy?

Poliomyelitis eradication—persistence in several African and Asian countries.

Meningococcal and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine programmes—positive and negative impacts.

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date: 24 September 2021

Immunization is one of the most successful medical interventions ever developed: it prevents infectious diseases worldwide.

Mechanism of effect—the basis for the success of immunization is that the human immune system is able to respond to vaccines by producing pathogen-specific antibody and memory cells (both B and T cells) which protect the body should the pathogen be encountered....

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