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Pulmonary embolism 

Pulmonary embolism
Chapter:
Pulmonary embolism
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199202447.003.0028
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date: 20 October 2019

Introduction 178

Risk factors 178

Clinical probability 179

Submassive PE 180

Massive PE 185

Further investigation of patients following PE 187

Prevention of pulmonary emboli 187

Pulmonary embolism (PE) can present with numerous non-specific symptoms and signs and hence mimics several other clinical conditions.

The annual incidence of PE is approximately 60–70 cases in 100 000. Half occur in hospitalized patients, with a quarter having clear risk factors and the remainder being idiopathic. Most hospitals will have their own protocol for investigation; some still use ventilation–perfusion scintigraphy if they have on-site facilities, but most now use multi-detector CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA)....

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