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Long-term course of negative symptoms in schizophrenia 

Long-term course of negative symptoms in schizophrenia
Long-term course of negative symptoms in schizophrenia

Anatoly Smulevich

and Dmitry Romanov

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date: 15 April 2021

The chapter focuses on the relationship of negative and positive symptoms in schizophrenia. Negative symptoms should be evaluated in a relation to positive symptoms both cross-sectionally and long term (prospectively/retrospectively). Two types of long-term interaction between negative and positive symptoms could be distinguished: (1) relatively synchronized, and (2) relatively desynchronized. Synchronization of negative and positive symptoms is characterized by their unidirectional long-term course. Desynchronization is characterized by their bidirectional long-term relations: (1) negative schizophrenia with minimal positive symptoms at the beginning of the disease and further progression of negative symptoms; or (2) schizophrenia with negative symptoms ‘that stopped at the very beginning’, and the later course is characterized by positive symptoms. Considering every single time point of the long-term relationship between negative and positive symptoms (cross-sectionally), the chapter describes the concept of ‘mutual/common syndromes’ (consisting of both positive and negative symptoms) at different stages of schizophrenia, including residual deficit states.

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