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Chronic non-inflammatory pain 

Chronic non-inflammatory pain
Chapter:
Chronic non-inflammatory pain
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198831426.003.0006
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date: 05 May 2021

This chapter explores chronic musculoskeletal pain. It identifies the differences in presentation between acute and chronic pain. One section has a specific focus on fibromyalgia including potential causes, symptoms, and diagnostic criteria. The management of chronic pain is discussed including cognitive behavioural therapy, improving sleep, engaging in graded exercise, and pacing activities to optimize physical and psychological function. The chapter also offers practitioners core guidance on how to approach physical examinations with a specific focus on examining the regions of the body, range of movements, and key examination or tests to undertake. Common presentations such as regional musculoskeletal pain frequently presenting in primary care are outlined. The chapter then focuses on common joint-specific problems that present including shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand, neck, and lower limb problems. The most common problems and how they may present in primary care are described with guidance on treatment approaches. For those wanting to explore issues in more depth, further reading for condition-specific problems is given together with supporting references.

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