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Osteoporosis 

Osteoporosis
Chapter:
Osteoporosis
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198831426.003.0003
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date: 05 May 2021

This chapter defines osteoporosis and its clinical features. The factors influencing bone mass and bone loss are described as well as contributing factors to the development of osteoporosis including hormonal, dietary, hereditary, and activity undertaken as well as the secondary causes seen in drug or disease-related issues. Diagnosis and how dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans are used and interpreted are briefly outlined. A key point that is discussed is osteoporosis in premenopausal women and in men, including causes and management. Vertebral and hip fractures result in a significant burden to the individual and to society. Avoiding these fractures is an important factor for all health professionals to consider so this chapter offers some useful information about managing older people at greater risk of such fractures as well as lifestyle points and how to offer appropriate education and support to all those at risk. In the final sections, assessment tools are described, the role of the nurse in the care of patients with osteoporosis is outlined, and frequently asked questions are covered.

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